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Model-Based Reinforcement Learning from Pixels with Structured Latent Variable Models

Imagine a robot trying to learn how to stack blocks and push objects using
visual inputs from a camera feed. In order to minimize cost and safety
concerns, we want our robot to learn these skills with minimal interaction
time, but efficient learning from complex sensory inputs such as images is
difficult. This work introduces SOLAR, a
new model-based reinforcement learning (RL) method that can learn skills –
including manipulation tasks on a real Sawyer robot arm – directly from
visual inputs with under an hour of interaction. To our knowledge, SOLAR is the
most efficient RL method for solving real world image-based robotics tasks.




Our robot learns to stack a Lego block and push a mug onto a coaster with only
inputs from a camera pointed at the robot. Each task takes an hour or less of
interaction to learn.

In the RL setting, an agent such as our robot learns from its own experience
through trial and error, in order to minimize a cost function corresponding to
the task at hand. Many challenging tasks have been solved in recent years by RL
methods, but most of these success stories come from model-free RL methods,
which typically require substantially more data than model-based
methods
. However, model-based methods often
rely on the ability to accurately predict into the future in order to plan the
agent’s actions. This is an issue for image-based learning as predicting future
images itself requires large amounts of
interaction
, which we wish to avoid.

There are some model-based RL methods that do not require accurate future
prediction, but these methods typically place stringent assumptions on the
state. The LQR-FLM method has been shown to
learn new tasks very efficiently, including for real robotic systems, by
modeling the dynamics of the state as approximately linear. This assumption,
however, is prohibitive for image-based learning, as the dynamics of pixels in
a camera feed are far from linear. The question we study in our work is: how
can we relax this assumption in order to develop a model-based RL method that
can solve image-based tasks without requiring accurate future predictions?

We tackle this problem by learning a latent state representation using deep
neural networks. When our agent is faced with images from the task, it can
encode the images into their latent representations, which can then be used
as the state inputs to LQR-FLM rather than the images themselves. The key
insight in SOLAR is that, in addition to learning a compact latent state that
accurately captures the objects, we specifically learn a representation that
works well with LQR-FLM by encouraging the latent dynamics to be linear. To
that end, we introduce a latent variable model that explicitly represents
latent linear dynamics, and this model combined with LQR-FLM provides the basis
for the SOLAR algorithm.

Stochastic Optimal Control with Latent Representations

SOLAR stands for stochastic optimal control with latent
representations, and it is an efficient and general solution for
image-based RL settings. The key ideas behind SOLAR are learning latent state
representations where linear dynamics are accurate, as well as utilizing a
model-based RL method that does not rely on future prediction, which we
describe next.

Linear Dynamical Control



Using the system state, LQR-FLM and related methods have been used to
successfully learn a myriad of tasks including robotic manipulation and
locomotion. We aim to extend these capabilities by automatically learning the
state input to LQR-FLM from images.

One of the best-known results in control theory is the linear-quadratic
regulator

(LQR), a set of equations that provides the optimal control strategy for a
system in which the dynamics are linear and the cost is quadratic. Though real
world systems are almost never linear, approximations to LQR such as LQR with
fitted linear
models
(LQR-FLM)
have been shown to perform well at a variety of robotic control tasks. LQR-FLM
has been one of the most efficient RL methods at learning control skills, even
compared to other model-based RL methods. This efficiency is enabled by the
simplicity of linear models as well as the fact that these models do not need
to predict accurately into the future. This makes LQR-FLM an appealing method
to build from, however the key limitation of this method is that it normally
assumes access to the system state, e.g., the joint configuration of the
robot and the positions of objects of interest, which can often be reasonably
modeled as approximately linear. We instead work from images and relax this
assumption by learning a representation that we can use as the input to
LQR-FLM.

Learning Latent States from Images



The graphical model we set up presumes that the images we observe are a
function of a latent state, and the states evolve according to linear dynamics
modulated by actions, and where the costs are given by a quadratic function of
the state and action.

We want our agent to extract, from its visual input, a state representation
where the dynamics of the state are as close to linear as possible. To
accomplish this, we devise a latent variable model in which the latent states
obey linear dynamics, as detailed in the graphic above. The dark nodes are what
we observe from interacting with the environment – namely, images, actions
taken by the agent, and costs. The light nodes are the underlying states, which
is the representation that we wish to learn, and we posit that the next state
is a linear function of the current state and action. This model bears strong
resemblance to the structured variational
auto-encoder
(SVAE), a model previously
applied to applications such as characterizing videos of mice. The method that
we use to fit our model is also based off of the method presented in this prior
work.

At a high level, our method learns both the state dynamics and an encoder,
which is a function that takes as input the current and past images and outputs
a guess of the current state. If we encode many observation sequences
corresponding to the agent’s interactions with the environment, we can see if
these state sequences behave according to our learned linear dynamics – if
they don’t, we adjust our dynamics and our encoder to bring them closer in
line. One key aspect of this procedure is that we do not directly optimize our
model to be accurate at predicting into the future, since we only fit linear
models retrospectively to the agent’s previous interactions. This strongly
complements LQR-FLM which, again, does not rely on prediction for good
performance. Our paper provides more
details about our model learning procedure.

The SOLAR Algorithm



Our robot iteratively interacts with its environment, uses this data to update
its model, uses this model to estimate the latent states and their dynamics,
and uses these dynamics to update its behavior.

Now that we have described the building blocks of our method, how do these
pieces fit together into the SOLAR method? The agent acts in the environment
according to its policy, which prescribes actions based on the current latent
state estimate. These interactions produce trajectories of images, actions, and
costs that are then used to fit the model detailed in the previous section.
Afterwards, using these entire trajectories of interactions, our model
retrospectively refines its estimate of the latent dynamics, which allows
LQR-FLM to produce an updated policy that should perform better at the given
task, i.e., incur lower costs. The updated policy is then used to collect more
trajectories, and the procedure repeats. The graphic above depicts these stages
of the algorithm.

The key difference between LQR-FLM and most other model-based RL methods is
that the resulting models are only used for policy improvement and not for
prediction into the future. This is useful in settings where the observations
are complex and difficult to predict, and we extend this benefit into
image-based settings by introducing latent states that we can estimate
alongside the dynamics. As seen in the next section, SOLAR can produce good
policies for image-based robotic manipulation tasks using only one hour of
interaction time with the environment.

Experiments



Left: For Lego block stacking, we experiment with multiple starting positions
of the arm and block. For pushing, we only use sparse rewards provided by a
human pushing a key when the robot succeeds. Example image observations are
given in the bottom row. Right: Examples of successful behaviors learned by
SOLAR.

Our main testbed for SOLAR is the Sawyer robotic arm, which has seven degrees
of freedom and can be used for a variety of manipulation tasks. We feed the
robot images from a camera pointed at its arm and the relevant objects in the
scene, and we task our robot with learning Lego block stacking and mug pushing,
as detailed below.

Lego Block Stacking

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–>


Using SOLAR, our Sawyer robot efficiently learns stacking from only image
observations from all three initial positions. The ablations are less
successful, and DVF does not learn as quickly as SOLAR. In particular, these
methods have difficulty with the challenging setting where the block starts on
the table.

The main challenge for block stacking stems from the precision required to
succeed, as the robot must very accurately place the block in order to properly
connect the pieces. Using SOLAR, the Sawyer learns this precision from only the
camera feed, and moreover the robot can successfully learn to stack from a
number of starting configurations of the arm and block. In particular, the
configuration where the block starts on the table is the most challenging, as
the Sawyer must learn to first lift the block off the table before stacking it
– in other words, it can’t be “greedy” and simply move toward the other block.

We first compare SOLAR to an ablation that uses a standard
variational
auto-encoder (VAE) rather than the SVAE,
which means that the state representation is not learned to follow linear
dynamics. This ablation is only successful on the easiest starting
configuration. In order to understand what benefits we extract from not
requiring accurate future predictions, we compare to another ablation which
replaces LQR-FLM with an alternative planning method known as model-predictive
control (MPC), and we also compare to a state-of-the-art prior method that uses
MPC, deep visual foresight (DVF). MPC has
been used in a number of prior and
subsequent works, and it relies on being
able to generate accurate future predictions using the learned model in order
to determine what actions are likely to lead to good performance.

The MPC ablation learns more quickly on the two easier configurations, however,
it fails in the most difficult setting because MPC greedily reduces the
distance between the two blocks rather than lifting the block off the table.
MPC acts greedily because it only plans over a short horizon, as predicting
future images becomes increasingly inaccurate over longer horizons, and this is
exactly the failure mode that SOLAR is able to overcome by utilizing LQR-FLM to
avoid future predictions altogether. Finally, we find that DVF can make
progress but ultimately is not able to solve the two harder settings even with
more data than what we use for our method. This highlights our method’s data
efficiency, as we use in total a few hours of robot data compared to days or
weeks of data as in DVF.

Mug Pushing


Despite the challenge of only having sparse rewards provided by a
human key press, our robot running SOLAR learns to push the mug onto the
coaster in under an hour. DVF is again not as efficient and does not learn as
quickly as SOLAR.

We add an additional challenge to mug pushing by replacing the costs with a
sparse reward signal, i.e., the robot only gets told when it has completed
the task, and it is told nothing otherwise. As seen in the picture above, the
human presses a key on the keyboard in order to provide the sparse reward, and
the robot must reason about how improve its behavior in order to achieve this
reward. This is implemented via a straightforward extension to SOLAR, as we
detail in the paper. Despite this
additional challenge, our method learns a successful policy in about an hour of
interaction time, whereas DVF performs worse than our method using a comparable
amount of data.

Simulated Comparisons



Left: an illustration of the car and reacher environments we experiment with,
along with example image observations in the bottom row. Right: our method
generally performs better than the ablations we compare to, as well as RCE. PPO
has better final performance, however PPO requires one to three orders of
magnitude more data than SOLAR to reach this performance.

In addition to the Sawyer experiments, we also run several comparisons in
simulation, as most prior work does not experiment with real robots. In
particular, we set up a 2D navigation domain where the underlying system
actually has linear dynamics and quadratic cost, but we can only observe images
that show a top-down view of the agent and the goal. We also include two
domains that are more complex: a car that must drive from the bottom right to
the top left of a 2D plane, and a 2 degree of freedom arm that is tasked with
reaching to a goal in the bottom left. All domains are learned with only image
observations that provide a top down view of the task.

We compare to robust locally-linear controllable
embeddings
(RCE), which takes a different
approach to learning latent state representations that follow linear dynamics.
We also compare to proximal policy
optimization
(PPO), a model-free RL method
that has been used to solve a number of simulated robotics domains but is not
data efficient enough for real world learning. We find that SOLAR learns faster
and achieves better final performance than RCE. PPO typically learns better
final performance than SOLAR, but this typically requires one to three orders
of magnitude more data, which again is prohibitive for most real world learning
tasks. This kind of tradeoff is typical: model-free methods tend to achieve
better final performance, but model-based methods learn much faster. Videos of
the experiments can be viewed on our project
website
.

Related Work

Approaches to learning latent representations of images have proposed
objectives such as reconstructing the image
and predicting future images. These
objectives do not line up perfectly with our objective of accomplishing tasks
– for example, a robot tasked with sorting objects into bins by color does not
need to perfectly reconstruct the color of the wall in front of it. There has
also been work on learning state representations that are suitable for control,
including identifying points of interest
within the image and learning latent states such that dimensions are
independently controllable
. A recent survey
paper
categorizes the landscape of state
representation learning.

Separately from control, there has been a number of recent works that learn
structured representations of data, many of which extend VAEs. The SVAE is an
example of one such framework, and some
other
methods also attempt to explain the data
with linear dynamics. Beyond this, there have been works that learn latent
representations with mixture model
structure
,
various
discrete
structures, and Bayesian
nonparametric
structures.

Ideas that are closely related to ours have been proposed in prior and
subsequent work. As mentioned before, DVF has also learned robotics tasks
directly from vision, and a recent blog
post
summarizes their
results. Embed to control and its successor
RCE also aim to learn latent state representations with linear dynamics. We
compare to these methods in our paper and demonstrate that our method tends to
exhibit better performance. Subsequent to our work,
PlaNet learns latent state representations
with a mixture of deterministic and stochastic variables and uses them in
conjunction with MPC, one of the baseline methods in our evaluation,
demonstrating good results on several simulated tasks. As shown by our
experiments, LQR-FLM and MPC each have their respective strengths and
weaknesses, and we found that LQR-FLM was typically more successful for robotic
control, avoiding the greedy behavior of MPC.

Future Work

We see several exciting directions for future work, and we’ll briefly mention
two. First, we want our robots to be able to learn complex, multi-stage tasks,
such as building Lego structures rather than just stacking one block, or
setting a table rather than just pushing one mug. One way we may realize this
is by providing intermediate images of the goals we want the robot to
accomplish, and if we expect that the robot can learn each stage separately, it
may be able to string these policies together into more complex and interesting
behaviors. Second, humans don’t just learn representations of states but also
actions – we don’t think about individual muscle movements, we group such
movements together into “macro-actions” to perform highly coordinated and
sophisticated behaviors. If we can similarly learn action representations, we
can enable our robots to more efficiently learn how to use hardware such as
dexterous hands, which will further increase their ability to handle complex,
real-world environments.

This post is based on the following paper:

We would like to thank our co-authors, without whom this work would not be
possible, for also contributing to and providing feedback on this post, in
particular Sergey Levine. We would also like to thank the many people that have
provided insightful discussions, helpful suggestions, and constructive reviews
that have shaped this work.

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Toronto AI is a social and collaborative hub to unite AI innovators of Toronto and surrounding areas. We explore AI technologies in digital art and music, healthcare, marketing, fintech, vr, robotics and more. Toronto AI was founded by Dave MacDonald and Patrick O'Mara.