[D] Alan Turing’s “Intelligent Machinery” (1948)
Turing wrote a paper titled “Intelligent Machinery” in 1948. This is a highly original work, introducing ideas such as genetic algorithms and neural networks (what he called “unorganized machines”) with learning capabilities, and reinforcement learning. I believe “Intelligent Machinery” is the most detailed treatment of A.I. written before 1950. It was not published during Turing’s lifetime [*].
Rather than giving a detailed summary, I will just quote Turing’s own abstract:
Abstract The possible ways in which machinery might be made to show intelligent behaviour are discussed. The analogy with the human brain is used as a guiding principle. It is pointed out that the potentialities of the human intelligence can only be realised if suitable education is provided. The investigation mainly centres round an analogous teaching process applied to machines. The idea of an unorganised machine is defined, and it is suggested that the infant human cortex is of this nature. Simple examples of such machines are given, and their education by means of rewards and punishments is discussed. In one case the education process is carried through until the organisation is similar to that of an ACE.
Link to the paper: https://weightagnostic.github.io/papers/turing1948.pdf